Antibiotic are drugs produced by microorganism used to kill germs. In broader term, it includes both natural as well as synthetic drugs. The discovery of antibiotics has revolutionized the field of medicine, penicillin discovered by alexander fleming was the first true antibiotic which marked the beginning of era of antibiotics. The duration and complication of infection has reduced a lot with use of antibiotics. They are mainly classified on the basis of organism on which they act.
The antibiotics are prescribed according to the disease or microorganism infection. They kill the organism via their particular mechanism of action, like penicillin is antibacterial, act on cell wall of bacteria. They are available in various forms for oral, topical or parenteral use. The antibiotics uses are also associated with side effects, and some adverse reactions are so much serious, like anaphylactic reaction, that they can kill human within minutes. Super infection is also seen in long use or use in immunocompromised individuals. The two different antibiotics are also given together so as to widen the range of antimicrobial therapy. The antibiotics are not only used for treatment but for prophylaxis also, as in post operative surgeries or in rheumatic fever. The antibiotics are now showing failure because of resistance shown by microorganism due to mutation. The use of antibiotics should be rationalized to combat the increasing range of infections.